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Egypt's coastal city of Alexandria, which has survived invasions, fires and earthquakes since it was founded by Alexander the Great more than 2,000 years ago, now faces a new menace in the form of climate change. Rising sea levels threaten to inundate poorer neighborhoods and archaeological sites, prompting authorities to erect concrete barriers out at sea to break the tide. Alexandria, the country's second city, is surrounded on three sides by the Mediterranean Sea and backs up to a lake, making it uniquely susceptible to the rise in sea levels caused by global warming and the melting of the polar ice caps.In Alexandria, a port city home to more than 5 million people and 40 percent of Egypt's industrial capacity, there are already signs of change.Over the following two decades that rose to 2.1 millimeters a year, and since 2012 it has reached as high as 3.2 millimeters per year, enough to threaten building foundations.A 2018 study predicted that up to 734 square kilometers of the Nile Delta could be inundated by 2050 and 2,660 square kilometers by the end of the century, affecting 5.7 million people.A 52-year-old resident of the Shatby neighborhood, who goes by Abu Randa, said he had repaired his three-story home twice since the 2015 floods.
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